Chapter on Who is Worshipped

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn 'Isa ibn 'Ubayd from Hassan ibn Muhbub from ibn Ri'ab from more than one person from the following form Imam abu 'Abdallah (a. s.). Abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) has said, "Whoever worships Allah with a degree of less than fifty percent knowledge of His existence he has certainly denied His existence.

Whoever worships the names without their meaning he certainly has also denied His existence. Whoever worships both the names and the meanings he certainly has become a polytheist. Whoever worships the meaning, with the understanding, that names only convey the attributes, which He Himself has said are His.

Thus, they have firmly tied this up to their hearts and have spoken out through their tongues in private and in public these are certainly of the friends of 'Amirul al- Mu'minin (a.s.). According to another Hadith, "They, certainly, are true believers."

H 228, Ch. 5, h 2

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Nadr ibn Suwayd from Hisham ibn al- Hakam who asked Imam abu 'Abdallah (a.s.) about the names of Allah and about the root or derivative forms of those names. "What is the root word for Allah?"

The Imam replied, "The word Allah is derived from the word Elah (Lord) which requires Ma'luh (some one whose Lord one has become). Note that names are something other than whatever to which they apply.

O Hissham, whoever, worships the name without the fact for which the name stands he has denied the existence of Allah and has not worshipped any thing. Whoever worships the name and the meaning for which the name stands he has worshipped two things. Whoever worships the meaning without the name he is a monotheist. Did you understand it ) O Hisham?" Hisham then asked, "Please explain further." The Imam then said, "Allah has ninety nine names.

If names would have been the samething for which they stand every one of them would have been a Lord. However, Allah is a meaning for which these names stand and they all are something other than Him. O Hisham, bread is the name for a certain kind of food, water is the name for a certain kind of drink, cloth is the name for a certain kind of garment and fire is the name for a thing that burns.

Did you understand, O Hisham, in a form of understanding that would help you to defend our cause against our enemies and those who worship things that are other than Allah?" I said, "Yes, I did receive such understanding." The Imam then said, "May Allah grant you success in it and keep you steadfast (in your belief).

Hisham has said, "I swear by Allah that since then no one has been able to defeat me in an argumentation on the issue of the Oneness of Allah and that has made me reach this position that I hold."

H 229, Ch. 5, h 3

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from 'Abbass al-Ma'ruf from 'Abd al-Rahman ibn abu Najran who has the following. I wrote or said to Imam abu Ja'far 'Abdallah (a.s.), "May Allah take my soul in your service.

Do we worship the Beneficent, the Merciful, the One who is One only and Self-sufficient?" The Imam then said, "Whoever worships the names without the meaning for which they stand he has become a polytheist and has denied the existence of Allah and has worshipped nothing.

You must worship Allah who is the One and only One, the Self-sufficient, Who is the meaning for these names but not these names. The names are attributes that He has said are of His attributes."