COVENANT العَهدُ

The Arabic word `Aahd, here translated as covenant, includes anything by way of a promise, a pledge, a vow, a contract, an oath, a covenant or any such agreement between people


1ـ رسولُ اللهِ‏ِ (صَلَّيَ اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَ آلِهِ): المُسلِمونَ عِندَ شُروطِهِم فيما اُحِلَّ.

1– The Prophet (SAWA) said, ‘Muslims [make and] fulfil their promises according to what is permissible.’[Kanz al-`Ummal, no. 10909]

2ـ رسولُ اللهِ (صَلَّيَ اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَ آلِهِ): ألا مَن ظَلَمَ مُعاهَداً ، أوِ انتَقَصَهُ ، أو كَلَّفَهُ فَوقَ طاقَتِهِ، أو أخَذَ مِنهُ شَيئاً بِغَيرِ طِيبِ نَفسٍ مِنهُ ، فَأنا حَجيجُه يَومَ القِيامَةِ.

2– The Prophet (SAWA) said, ‘Verily whoever is not true to an agreement, or breaks it, or promises beyond that which he is capable of, or omits something from it without good intention therein, then I will hold it against him on the Day of Resurrection.’[Kanz al-`Ummal, no. 10924]

3ـ رسولُ اللهِ (صَلَّيَ اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَ آلِهِ): إذا نَقَضوا العَهدَ سَلَّطَ اللّه‏ُ عَلَيهِم عَدُوَّهُم.

3– The Prophet (SAWA) said, ‘When they break a covenant, Allah allows their enemy to gain mastery over them.’[Bihar al-Anwar, v. 100, p. 46, no. 3]

4ـ رسولُ اللهِ (صَلَّيَ اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَ آلِهِ): لا دِينَ لِمَن لا عَهدَ لَهُ .

4– The Prophet (SAWA) said, ‘He who does not keep a promise has no religion.’[Nawadir al-R`awandi, p. 5]

5ـ الإمامُ عليٌّ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ): إنَّ العُهودَ قَلائدُ في الأعناقِ إلى يَومِ القِيامَةِ ، فمَن وَصَلَها وَصَلَهُ اللّه‏ُ ، ومَن نَقَضَها خَذَلَهُ اللّه‏ُ ، ومَنِ استَخَفَّ بِها خاصَمَتهُ إلَى الّذي أكَّدَها وأخَذَ خَلقَهُ بِحِفظِها .

5– Imam Ali (AS) said, ‘Verily promises are chains on people’ s necks until the Day of Resurrection. So whoever fulfils them is delivered by Allah, and whoever breaks them is forsaken by Allah, and whoever takes them lightly will have to contend with the One Who has placed special emphasis on them and Who has enjoined upon His creation to fulfil them.’[Ghurar al-Hikam, no. 3650]

6ـ الإمامُ عليٌّ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) ـ مِن كِتابِهِ لِلأشتَرِ لَمّا وَلاّهُ مِصرَ ـ: لَيسَ مِن فَرائضِ اللّه‏ِ شَيءٌ النّاسُ أشَدُّ عَلَيهِ اجتِماعاً ـ مَعَ تَفَرُّقِ أهوائهِم، وتَشَتُّتِ آرائهِم ـ مِن تَعظيمِ الوَفاءِ بِالعُهودِ.

6– Imam Ali (AS), in a letter he wrote to al-Ashtar when he appointed him governor of Egypt, said, ‘Among all things made incumbent by Allah, there is nothing on which people are more strongly united, in spite of the difference of their opinions and the diversity of their views, than the respect for fulfilling promises.’[Nahj al-Balagha, Letter 53]

7ـ الإمامُ عليٌّ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ): حُسنُ العَهدِ مِنَ الإيمانِ.

7– Imam Ali (AS) said, ‘Verily fulfilment of a promise is part of faith.’[Ghurar al-Hikam, no. 3379]

8ـ الإمامُ عليٌّ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ): ما أيقَنَ بِاللّه‏ِ مَن لَم يَرْعَ عُهودَهُ وذِمَّتَهُ.

8– Imam Ali (AS) said, ‘He who does not observe his promises and his guarantee does not have conviction in Allah.’[Ghurar al-Hikam, no. 9577]

9ـ الإمامُ الباقرُ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ): ثَلاثٌ لَم يَجعَلِ اللّه‏ُ عَزَّوجلَّ لاِءحَدٍ فيهِنَّ رُخصَةً: ... الوَفاءُ بِالعَهدِ لِلبَرِّ والفاجِرِ.

9– Imam al-Baqir (AS) said, ‘There are three things wherein Allah, Mighty and Exalted, has not granted anyone a concession … the fulfilment of one’ s promise, be it to the good person or the bad.’[al-Kafi, v. 2, p. 162, no. 15]

10ـ الإمامُ عليٌّ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) ـ في قولهِ تعالى: «وَلا تَكونوا كَالَّتي نَقَضَتْ غَزْلَها مِنْ بَعْدِ قُوة» ـ: الّتي نَقَضَت غَزلَها امرَأةٌ مِن بَني تَيمِ بنِ مُرَّةَ يُقالُ لَها: رابِطَةُ (ريطَةُ) بِنتُ كَعبِ بنِ سَعدِ بنِ تَيمِ بنِ كَعبِ بنِ لُؤيَّ بنِ غالِبٍ ، كانَت حَمقاءَ تَغزِلُ الشَّعَرَ ، فإذا غَزَلَت نَقَضَتهُ ثُمَّ عادَت فَغَزَلَتهُ ، فقالَ اللّه‏ُ: «وَلا تَكونوا كَالَّتي نَقَضَتْ غَزلَها مِنْ بَعْدِ قُوة»إنَّ اللّه‏َ تَبارَكَ وتَعالى أمَرَ بِالوَفاءِ ونَهى عَن نَقضِ العَهدِ ، فضَرَبَ لَهُم مَثَلاً .

10– Imam al-Baqir (AS) with regards to Allah’ s verse “Do not be like her who would undo her yarn, breaking it up after [spinning it to] strength, by making your oaths a means of [mutual] deceit among yourselves …”[ Qur’ an 1692], said, ‘The one who undid her yarn was a woman from the tribe of Bani Taym b. Murrah, called Rabita (Rayta), daughter of Ka`ab b. Sa`ad b. Taym b. Ka`ab b. Lu`aayya b. Ghalib. She was a stupid woman who would spin hair, and after she had spun it, she would undo it then start to spin it all over again. So Allah said, “Do not be like her who would undo her yarn …” Verily Allah, Blessed and most High, has commanded the fulfilment of the oath and has prohibited its breaking, and has made this a parable for them.’[Tafsir al-Qummi, v. 1, p. 389]

11ـ الإمامُ الصّادقُ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) ـ لَمّا سُئلَ عَن قَولِهِ تَعالى: «ياأيُّها الَّذينَ‏آمَنوا أوْفوا بِالعُقودِ» ـ: العُهودِ.

11– Imam al-Sadiq (AS), when asked about the verse “O you who have faith! Keep your agreements”, replied, ‘[It refers to] promises.’[Tafsir al-Qummi, v. 1, p. 289, no. 5