The purpose of Fasting

Hisham Bin Al-Hakam asked Imam Abou Abdellah (Pbuh) about the cause of fasting. Imam (Pbuh) said: “Allah obligated fasting so that the poor and rich become equal. So that the rich tastes hunger and thus he becomes merciful to the poor. Because the rich is able to reach anything he wants. So Allah wants to equalize his creatures so that the rich one tastes hunger and pain and thus he becomes kind and merciful to the hungry one.” 

Abu Al-Hassan Al-Rida (pbuh) in his answer about the purpose of fasting, he said: "To know the feeling of hunger and thirst, so that the servant would be humble, servile, rewarded, enduring and patient; and so that it would show him the hardships of the Hereafter along with the forbiddance of lusts that lies within it. It will be a preacher of what will happen in this world and a guide of what will happen in the Hereafter, so that he would know the severe adversities that the poor suffer in this world and the Hereafter." 

إقبال الأعمال ج 1 ص 30، الفقيه 2 : 73 ، علل الشرايع 2 : 378 ، فضائل الأشهر الثلاثة : 102 ، عنهم الوسائل 10 : 7/ بحار الأنوار ج6 ص96/ ج93 ص370، عيون الأخبار ج2 ص90Iqbal Al-Aa’mal, Al-Sayyid Tawous Al-Hassany 1:30; Al-Faqeeh 2:73; Ilal Al-Sharai’ 378; The Virtues of The Three Months 102; Al-Wasa’il 10:7, Al-Bihar vol.6 p.96/vol.93 p.370, Oyoun Al-Akhbar vol.2 p.90

The holy prophet Allah's prayers and peace be upon him and his progeny answers the question of jews about fasting
reported from our Master Imam Hassan Bin Ali Bin Abi Talib (Pbut) that he said: “few jews came to the Messenger of Allah
(Pbuhp). The most knowledgeable of them asked him about some matters. One of these matters is: “for what reason Allah obligated that your nation must fast 30 days, yet the other nations were obliged to fast more? The Messenger of Allah (Pbuhp) said: “when Adam ate from the tree, food remained in his guts for 30 days. So Allah obligated that his descendents must suffer from hunger and thirst. What they eat at night is out of Allah generosity upon them and so was the case of Adam. So Allah obligated this over my nation.” Then the Messenger of Allah (Pbuhp) recited this verse {fasting is obligated on you are it was obligated on the ones before you. for that you might be pious# Several days} 
Then the Hebrews said: “you are right and honest, O Mohammad. What are the rewards of who fasts?”
The Messenger of Allah (Pbuhp) said: “every believer that fasts in Ramadan Month shall be granted 7 rewards from Allah: illicitness melts out of his body, he is never far from the mercy of Allah, he remits the sin of his father Adam, Allah makes his death easy, he becomes secure from hunger and thirst on Resurrection Day, and Allah will feed him from the fruits of heaven.”
The Hebrews said: “you are right and honest, O Mohammad”

إقبال الأعمال ج 1 ص 30, الفقيه 2 : 74 ، الخصال 2 : 530
Iqbal Al-Aa’mal 1:30; Al-Faqeeh 2:74; Al-Khisal 2:530

Inspected & Translated by Sayyid Shouhadaa's (A.S) Center for Islamic Research
تحقيق و ترجمة مركز سيد الشهداء (ع) للبحوث الاسلامية