Compulsion and freewill

* Al-Sheik Al-Sadouq states in Al-Tawheed Book: Reported from Ibrahim bin Amr Al-Yamani from Imam Abou Abdellah (Pbuh) that he said: "Allah created the creatures and had knowledge of their destinations. He commanded them and prohibited them. Every matter that he ordered them, he made them a way to do it and every matter he prohibited them from he made them a way to prevent themselves from doing it. They only do and don’t do by permission of Allah." [1]


* Al-Sheikh Al-Kulaini states in Al-Kafi Book: Reported from Sahel bin Ziad and Is'haq bin Mohammad and others that once Ameer Elmo'mineen (Pbuh) was sitting in Al-Kufa after he left Sofeen. Then a sheikh came, kneeled before him and said: "O Ameer Elmo'mineen, tell us about our travel to war to Sham. Was it a destined fate decided by Allah?" Imam Ameer Elmo'mineen (Pbuh) said: "Indeed O sheikh. You didn’t mount a hill nor went down a valley but because of destined fate by Allah." Sheikh: "Then my weariness is on Allah's account?" Imam: "Silence O sheikh. Your rewards are greatened as you were marching in your path, sitting where you sit and when you were leaving towards where you left to. You were never compelled in any of your situations or decisions." Sheikh: "How we were not compelled in any decision or situation and yet you say that our march, sitting and leaving were a destined fate?" Imam: "Do you think that it was an inevitable unalterable fate? If it was like that then there would be no reward, punishment, command or prohibition from Allah. The concept of promise of reward or punishment would have been falsified. The sinner wouldn’t be blamed and the good-doer wouldn’t be praised. The sinner would be more worthy of rewards than the good-doer and the good-doer would be more worthy of punishments than the sinner. This is what the worshipers of idles say along with the enemies of Al-Rahman, the party of Demon, and the Qadaries and Majous of this nation. Allah's obligation is subjected to freewill and his prohibition is a warning. Allah gave the little a lot. He is not disobeyed by force or obeyed against his will and He was not given authority to dominate. He didn’t create the skies and land out of falsehood. He didn’t send the prophets to preach and warn in vain.  This is what the infidels think So Wayl of fire is for the ones who disbelieve.  Then the Sheikh said this poem in the name of the Imam:
You are the Imam that by obeying him we plead  *   Forgiveness from the Most Gracious on Salvation Day

You cleared the matter that was misunderstood   *    May Allah reward you with good for the good you did."[2]


* Al-Sheikh Al-Kulaini states in Al-Kafi Book: Reported from Al-Hassan bin Ali Al-Washaa' that he asked Imam Abou Al-Hassan Al-Rida (Pbuh): "Did Allah delegate all the matters to the servants?" Imam: "Allah is more glorious than doing this." He: "Did he compel them to sin?" Imam: "Allah is more just and wiser than doing this." Then Imam (Pbuh) said: "Allah said: "O son of Adam, I'm more worthy of your righteous deeds than you and you are more worthy of your evil deeds than me. You committed sins by my power that I placed in you."[3]


*Al-Sheikh Al-Kulaini states in Al-Kafi Book: Reported from Hafs Ibn Qart from Imam Abou Abdellah (Pbuh) that he said that the Messenger of Allah (Pbuhp) said: "He who claims that Allah commands evilness and obscenities is lying to Allah. He who claims that good and evil are out of Allah's will then he erased the power of Allah. He who claims that sins are done by power other than that of Allah then is lying to Allah. Allah sends he who lies to him to hell." [4]


*Al-Sheikh Al-Kulaini states in Al-Kafi Book:  Reported from Yunus bin Abdelrahman from Imam Abou Jaa'far and Imam Abou Abdellah (Pbut) that they said: "Allah is more merciful to his creatures than compelling them to sin and then tormenting them for these sins. Allah is more glorious than willing a matter and then it doesn’t happen." So one asked them: "Is there a third level between compulsion and freewill?" They said: "a level wider than the space between sky and land."[5]


* Al-Sheikh Al-Sadouq states in Al-Tawheed Book:  Reported from Al-Moufaddal bin Amr from Imam Abou Abdellah (Pbuh) that he said: "Neither Compulsion nor Freewill yet a matter between these two." He said: "What is this matter that is between these two?" Imam: "The parable of this is as if you see a man committing a sin and you told him not to do it but he didn’t listen and so you left him thus he committed it. So when you leave him and let him do it doesn’t mean that you ordered him to do it."[6]


* Al-Sheikh Al-Sadouq states in Al-Tawheed Book: Reported from Hareez bin Abdellah from Imam Abou Abdellah (Pbuh) that he said: "There are three opinions of people concerning fate. The first opinion is that some think that Allah compelled people to commit sins. Such people are unjust to Allah in the way they thought and so they are infidels. The second opinion is that some think that Allah delegated all the matters to them. Such people underpowered the power of Allah thus they are infidels. The third opinion is that some think that Allah obliged people to do what they have the power to do and didn’t oblige them to do what they don’t have the power to do. If they do good they thank Allah and if they do evil they ask forgiveness from Allah. These are the true Muslims."[7]

[1] الكافي ج1 ص158، التوحيد للصدوق ص359، عنه البحار ج5 ص51، نور البراهين ج2 ص 292، مختصر البصائر ص132، الاحتجاج ج2 ص151، عنه البحار ج5 ص26 باختلاف يسير باللفظ دون المعنى، الفصول المهمة ج1 ص235، تفسير نور الثقلين ج5 ص279.

[2] الكافي ج1 ص155، عيون اخبار الرضا (ع) ج2 ص127، التوحيد للصدوق ص380، تحف العقول ص468، روضة الواعظين ص40، الارشاد ج1 ص225، أمالي المرتضى ج1 ص104، كنز الفوائد ص169، الصراط المستقيم ج3 ص64 بعضه، نور البراهين ج2 ص341، عنه البحار ج5 ص12، الفصول المهمة ج1 ص231، مناقب الخوارزمي ص58.

[3] الكافي ج1 ص157، عيون اخبار الرضا (ع) ج2 ص131، التوحيد للصدوق ص362، عنه البحار ج5 ص15، الجواهر السنية ص355، نور البراهين ج2 ص305، تفسير العياشي ج1 ص258 باختلاف بسيط، تفسير البيان ص527، كشف الغمة ج3 ص81.

[4] الكافي ج1 ص158، التوحيد ص359، عنه البحار ج5 ص51، مختصر البصائر ص132، الفصول المهمة ج1 ص232، تفسير العياشي ج2 ص11، عنه البحار ج5 ص127، نور البراهين ج2 ص293، تفسير الميزان ج8 ص89.

[5] الكافي ج1 ص159، التوحيد للصدوق ص360، عنه البحار ج5 ص51، مختصر البصائر ص133، نور البراهين ج2 ص294، الفصول المهمة ج1 ص236، تفسير نور الثقلين ج5 ص345، ميزان الحكمة ج1 ص363، تفسير الميزان ج1 ص102 عن التوحيد.

[6] الكافي ج1 ص160، الهداية للصدوق ص18 بعضه، التوحيد للصدوق ص206 بعضه، التوحيد ص262، عنه البحار ج5 ص17، نور البراهين ج1 ص497 بعضه/ ج2 ص304، الاعتقادات ص29، روضة الواعظين ص38، ميزان الحكمة ج1 ص363، الفصول المهمة ج1 ص240، تفسير القمي ج1 ص227 في الهامش، تفسير الميزان ج1 ص97 بعضه، العدد القوية ص298، مجمع البحرين ج1 ص339.

[7] الخصال ص195، عنه البحار ج5 ص9/ ج75 ص255، التوحيد للصدوق ص360، تحف العقول ص371، الفصول المهمة ج1 ص234، نور البراهين ج2 ص296.