In Rajab, the Prophet sent letters and emissaries to the Arab tribes which had entered into Islam in order to invite them to the jihad. This was the Battle of Tabuk, which the Prophet led
against the Byzantines and their Arab clients. He wrote to the tribes of Tamim, Ghatafan and Tayy. He also sent a message to `Attab ibn Usayd, his representative in Mecca, to make ready for
battle against the Byzantines.
When all was ready for the journey, the Prophet stood up and delivered a sermon wherein he first praised Allah with fitting praise, then invited the people to help one another and assist the weak among them and to spend of their wealth in Allah's cause. The first man to give was Uthman ibn `Affan (the third caliph). He brought vessels filled with silver, which he poured in the lap of the Prophet. He also provisioned an army of poor people. He was thus known as, `he who provisioned the army of hardship' (jayshu'l-`usrah). al-`Abbas also came to the Messenger of Allah and gave generously, donating provisions for the fighters. The Ansar hastened to do likewise. Other Companions also gave handsome donations: `Abdu'r-Rahman ibn `Awf, az-Zubayr and Talhah. Some of the Hypocrites also gave of their wealth, but only for a show of hypocrisy. Allah sent down concerning this certain verses of the Qur'an. 
The Messenger of Allah encamped at Thaniyyatu'l Wada' with those who followed him of the Immigrants, the Arab tribes, the tribe of Kinanah, the people of Tihamah and Muzaynah, Juhaynah, Tayy and Tamim. He set `Ali as his representative over Medina, saying to him: "It is necessary that either you or I should stay in Medina." He entrusted the banner of the Immigrants to az-Zubayr and placed Talhah ibn `Ubaydillah at the head of the right flank, and `Abdu'rRahman ibn `Awf at the head of the left one. Then he set out until he reached a place called al-Jurf. There `Abdullah ibn Ubayy returned (to Medina) without the Prophet's permission. The Apostle of Allah said: "Allah is my sufficient Helper. It is He Who strengthened him (that is, the Prophet) with His support and with the people of faith, and reconciled their hearts. " [Qur'an 8:63]
At al-Jurf 'Ali hastened to the Prophet and, taking hold of his stirrup, complained saying: "O Apostle of Allah, the people of Quraysh are claiming that you have left me behind because you find me bothersome!" He replied: "Communities (of faith) have always caused their prophets much hurt! Are you not content to be in the same station to me as was Aaron to Moses?" "Yes, I accept", 'Ali answered; he then returned to Medina.
The Messenger of Allah arrived at Tabuk in Sha'ban, on Tuesday, where he remained the rest of the month and a few days of Ramadan. While in Tabuk, a man called Yuhannah ibn Ru'bah, the Governor of Aylah (Ilat), came to him. Yuhannah agreed to give the Apostle of Allah the jizyah and thus he wrote a truce agreement for him. The letter is still with them (that is, the Christians of the city). The Prophet likewise wrote an agreement of security for the people of al-Jarba' and Adhruh (two towns in Syria). Also while in Tabuk, the Messenger of Allah sent Abu `Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah with a man called Zinba` ibn Rawh al-Judhami against a group of the tribe of Judham. Abu `Ubaydah was able to seize much wealth and women captives. The Prophet also sent Sa'd ibn `Ubadah against some people of the tribe of Sulaym and others of the tribe of Baliyy. But as they approached, the people fled.
The Prophet then sent Khalid ibn al-Walid to Ukaydir, a chieftain of a place called Dumatu'l-Jandal. He predicted to Khalid: "Allah will deliver him into your hand by means of the chasing of a cow." As Khalid and his Companions were spending a clear night near Ukaydir's fortress and while he sat within drinking wine with two of his wives, a cow came and vehemently began to butt the door. He rode after it with Hassan his brother and the men who owned the cow. Khalid and his Companions sat in ambush for him.
Thus they captured him while he was chasing a cow. They killed Hassan his brother, who was wearing a garment woven with gold threads. The other men escaped and ran into the fortress and closed its gate. Khalid brought Ukaydir to the gate and ordered the men to open for him, but they refused. Ukaydir then asked Khalid to let him go and open the gate. He sent a man to guard him, and Ukaydir opened the fortress for Khalid and his Companions. Ukaydir gave him eight hundred heads of cattle, two thousand camels, four hundred suits of armour, four hundred spears and five hundred swords. Khalid accepted this gift from him and brought him to the Messenger of Allah. The Prophet spared his life and concluded a truce with him upon payment of the poll-tax.
It is reported in Bayhaqi's Dala'ilu'l-Nubuwwah  on the authority of Abu 'l-Aswad that when the Messenger of Allah was on his way back from Tabuk, some of his Companions plotted against him. They agreed to travel with him through a steep road and throw him over the cliff. The Messenger of Allah was, however, informed of their plot. He thus advised: "Let anyone of you who wish, take the road through the valley, for it is more spacious for you! " Yet he himself took the steep road. All the men took the road through the valley, except those who had plotted against him; they made ready and masked themselves. The Messenger of Allah commanded Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman and Ammar ibn Yasir to walk with him. He ordered `Ammar to lead his she-camel, and Hudhayfah to drive her on from behind. As they were thus going, they heard the hastening footsteps of the men who had all surrounded him. The Apostle of Allah became angry, and ordered Hudhayfah to turn them away from him. Hudhayfah ran after them with a thick staff with a twisted handle and struck them with it in their faces. The men scattered, and Allah caused them to be frightened as they saw Hudhayfah. They thought that their malicious scheme had been discovered. They thus ran until they intermingled with the people, and Hudhayfah returned to the Messenger of Allah.
The Prophet ordered Hudhayfah to drive the she-camel on, and `Ammar to lead her quickly until they came out of the steep road, where they halted to wait for the men. The Prophet asked: "O Hudhayfah, did you recognize the horse or camel of any of these men?" "Yes", he answered, "I recognized the mount of this and that man" - even though the darkness of the night had covered them, and they were masked. The Prophet asked: "Do you know what these riders wished to do?" "No, O Apostle of Allah", they said. He continued: "They plotted to travel at my side through this steep road, so that when darkness had covered the road, they would push me down the cliff!" Hudhayfah and `Ammar asked: "When the people come, will you not, O Apostle of Allah, order that they be beheaded?" "I do not wish that men talk later and say that Muhammad has finally attacked his own Companions", he answered. He then named the culprits all for them, and said: "Keep their names a secret!" It is reported in Aban ibn `Uthman's book that they were twelve men, seven of whom were of the Quraysh. 
It is reported that the Prophet then returned to Medina. Whenever he returned from a journey, he was received with Hasan and Husayn. He would take them in his arms and go straight to the house of Fatimah, with the Muslims crowding all around him. They would wait for him at the door until he came out, then they would walk with him to his home, when they would disperse.
It is related on the authority of Abu Hamid as-Sa'idi (a well-known Companion) who said: "We returned with the Messenger of Allah from the Battle of Tabuk. When we came within sight of Medina, he said: `This is Tabah (the good place, another name for Medina), and this is Mount Uhud. It loves us and we love it.' " It is further reported on the authority of Anas ibn Malik that when the Messenger came close to Medina, he said: "There are in Medina certain people who are with you on whatever journey you make through any valley or plain." The people asked: "O Apostle of Allah, even though they remain in Medina?" "Yes", he answered, "even though they remain in Medina, for there they shall be obliged to stay."
The engagement of Tabuk was the last battle which the Messenger undertook. `Abdullah ibn Ubayy (the well-known Hypocrite) died shortly after the Messenger of Allah's return from this engagement.
During the last days of the pilgrimage of the ninth year of the hijrah the surah which begins: This is a declaration of immunity from Allah and His Apostle... (surah 9) was sent down. The Prophet delivered the sacred writ to Abu Bakr, who set out with it (for Mecca). Gabriel, however, came down and said to the Prophet: "No one can execute your affairs except you or 'Ali." He thus dispatched 'Ali on his own she-camel, called al-`Adba', after Abu Bakr. When he caught up with him, he took the writ from him. Abu Bakr asked: "Has anything been revealed concerning me?" "No," 'Ali answered, "but no one can execute the Apostle of Allah's affairs except he himself, or I ."
`Ali went on with the sacred text, which he then recited repeatedly and with a loud voice in Mecca on the Day of Sacrifice (Idd al-Adha) and the three days following. He was enjoined to abrogate the covenant of the Associators; and he was (also) to announce that no naked person should henceforth circumambulate the Sacred House (the Ka'bah), and that no Associator should henceforth be allowed to enter the Sacred Mosque; and that any covenant made with the Prophet, should be allowed to run its stated term; but anyone who had no such covenant would be given respite for four months. If after four months we capture him, we shall slay him. This is the meaning of Allah's saying: But when the (four) sacred months have elapsed. . ., until His saying: lie in wait for them in every place of ambush [Qur'an 9 : 5 ].
It is reported that when `Ali entered Mecca, he unsheathed his sword and, welding it, exclaimed: "By Allah, no naked man shall circumambulate the House, but that I shall strike him with my sword!" He thus forced them to wear their clothes, and they performed the rite of circumambulation dressed. It is reported that a man called `Urwah ibn Mas'ud ath-Thaqafi came to the Apostle of Allah declaring his Islam. He then requested permission to return to his people (i.e., the tribe of Thaqif). The Prophet answered: "I fear that they might kill you." He assured him saying: "Even if they find me sleeping, they would not disturb me." The Messenger of Allah gave him permission, and he returned to at-Ta'if, where he called his people to Islam and offered them good counsel, but they did not obey him. They even hurled insults at him.
One day, as he stood on the roof of his house and raised the call to prayer, a man shot an arrow at him and killed him. Shortly after his death, however, a delegation of about fifteen men of the notables of Thaqif came to the Messenger of Allah declaring their Islam. The Messenger of Allah showed them hospitality and kindness. He sent with them as his representative `Uthman ibn Abi 'l-`As ibn Bishr, who had learnt a number of surahs of the Qur'an. It is reported that he said: "O Apostle of Allah, Satan has come between my prayers and recitation (i.e., of the Qur'an in prayer)." He answered: "This is a Satan called Khinzub (which means a piece of filthy flesh). If you fear him, take refuge in Allah from him (i.e., by reciting the formula: a'udhu bi'llahi mina'sh-Shaytani 'r-rajim), and spit three times to your left." `Uthman went on: "I did this, and Allah removed him from me."
After the tribe of Thaqif had entered into Islam, numerous delegations of other Arab tribes followed one another to the Messenger of Allah: entering into the religion of Allah in droves, as Allah the Exalted says [see Qur'an 110) . Among them was `Utarid ibn Hajib ibn Zurarah who came to him with a delegation of the notables of the tribe of Tamim, among whom were al-Aqra` ibn Habis, az-Zibriqan ibn Badr, Qays ibn `Asim, `Uyaynah ibn Hisn al-Fazari and `Amr ibn al-Ahtam. al-Aqra` and `Uyaynah had already witnessed with the Messenger of Allah the conquest of Mecca and the battles of Hunayn and at-Ta'if. Thus, when the delegation of Tamim came, they too came with them. The Messenger of Allah offered them a pact of protection (jiwar) and treated them hospitably. Another of the delegations which came to him was that of the tribe of `Amir, among whom was `Amir ibn at-Tufayl and Arbad ibn Qays, the stepbrother of Labid ibn Rabi'ah. `Amir, however, said to Arbad: "I shall stand before him so that he will not be able to see you. When I do this, then strike him with your sword!" Thus `Amir said to the Prophet, "O Muhammad, embrace me! " "No, not until you believe in Allah alone", the Prophet answered. `Amir repeated his demand twice, but when the Messenger of Allah refused, he said: "By Allah, I shall fill the place with red horses and men against you! " When he left, the Messenger of Allah prayed saying: "O Allah spare me `Amir ibn at -Tufayl ! "
On the way, `Amir enquired of Arbad, "Why did you not do as I had ordered you?" He replied: "By Allah, every time I came close to executing your command, you came between me and the man - would I want to strike you with the sword?" While still on his way, Allah sent against `Amir a plague in his neck which killed him while he was in the house of a woman of the tribe of Salul. After his companions buried him, they went home. Allah also sent against Arbad and his camel a thunderbolt which burnt them both.
It is further reported in Aban ibn `Uthman's book that `Amir and Arbad came to the Messenger of Allah after the engagement with the Jewish tribe of Banu 'n-Nadir. As `Amir was breathing his last, he repeated, "A disease (I have) that would kill even a young camel, and I shall suffer death in the house of this Salulite woman! "He states further that the Messenger of Allah prayed concerning `Amir and Arbad, "O Allah, grant me in their stead the two strongest horsemen of the Arabs!" Thus the well-known warrior Zayd ibn Muhalhal at-Tai known as `Zaydu'l-Khayl' (Zayd of the many horses) and `Amr ibn Ma'dikarib (another well-known fighter) came to him.
Among those who came to the Messenger of Allah were the delegation of the tribe of Tayy, among whom were Zaydu'l-Khayl and `Adiyy ibn Hatim. He invited them to Islam, and they all accepted and lived a good Muslim life. The Messenger of Allah renamed Zayd `Zayd of goodness' (Zaydu'l-Khayr). He granted him a place called Fayd (near Mecca) and two plots of land in addition. He also gave him a written deed. When Zayd left the Apostle of Allah to go back to his people, the Prophet predicted: "Would that Zayd be spared the fever of Medina and the pain of death!" As Zayd crossed the district of Najd and reached a spring of water called Faradah, he fell ill with fever and died there. His wife took whatever epistles and pledges he had and consigned them to the fire.'
Ibn Ishaq reported that `Adiyy ibn Hatim first fled before the Muslim armies, but the horsemen of the Messenger of Allah captured his sister and brought her to the Prophet. He, however, gave her clothes, money and other gifts. She travelled with different caravans until she arrived in Syria, where she advised her brother to go to the Prophet. He went and accepted Islam, and the Messenger of Allah treated him honorably, seating him on a cushion and offering him his hand (as a sign of friendship).
Another man who came to the Messenger of Allah was `Amr ibn Ma'dikarib, who accepted Islam. He then looked at Abu 'I-`Ath'ath al-Khath'ami pulling him by the neck and brought to the Messenger of Allah saying: "Help me to kill this wicked man, for he killed my father." The Prophet answered: "Islam has annulled everything that was in the jahiliyyah." `Amr then departed an apostate. He thus attacked a people of the tribe of Banu Harith ibn Ka'b. The Messenger of Allah dispatched `Ali to the tribe of Banu Zubayd and entrusted to him the banner of the Immigrants. He also dispatched Khalid ibn al-Walid at the head of a detachment of the Bedouins. He commanded Khalid to set out for a place called Ju'fiyy. He instructed further that when Khalid and 'Ali met, then 'Ali ibn Abi Talib was to be the leader of the men. 'Ali went on, placing at the head of the advance troops of his army Khalid ibn Said ibn al-`As. When the people of Zubayd saw him, they said to `Amr : "What would you think, O Abu Thawr, if this Qurayshite youth were to encounter you and force you to pay the land tax?" "He shall know when he meets me", `Amr retorted.
`Amr set out, as did the Commander of the Faithful, 'Ali; 'Ali uttered a loud cry, and `Amr fled. His brother and brother's son were slain, and his wife Rukanah, along with other women, was taken captive. 'Ali left as his representative over the tribe of Zubayd Khalid ibn Said to receive their zakat (obligatory alms) payments. He was also instructed to grant a pledge of safety (aman) to any man who had fled, if he returned a Muslim. `Amr himself returned and declared his Islam to Khalid ibn Said. He also spoke to him concerning his wife and children, and Khalid gave them back to him.
'Ali chose for himself from among the women captives a youthful maiden. Thus Khalid sent Buraydah al-Aslami to the Prophet, and said to him: "Proceed before the army and inform the Prophet of what 'Ali has done, in that he chose a maiden for himself from the fifth of the booty" -thus criticizing `Ali (because the fifth belongs to the Prophet, [see Qur'an 8:41 ] ). Buraydah hastened to the Prophet carrying Khalid's letter. As he began to read it to the Messenger of Allah, the latter's face began to change (with displeasure). Buraydah observed: "Did you, O Apostle of Allah, permit people to do such a thing? The men have been deprived of their share of the booty." The Messenger of Allah answered: "O Buraydah, you have spoken words of hypocrisy. For, surely whatever is lawful for me of the booty, is also lawful for 'Ali. 'Ali is indeed the best of men for you and for your people. He is the best man whom I would leave as my representative over my community after me. O Buraydah, beware that you do not hate 'Ali, for Allah would then despise you." Buraydah reported that, "I wished then that the earth would open up and swallow me. I exclaimed, `I take refuge in Allah from Allah's wrath and the wrath of His Apostle. O Apostle of Allah, beg Allah's forgiveness for me! I shall never again hate 'Ali, nor will I say anything but good about him.' " Thus the Prophet asked Allah to forgive Buraydah. Buraydah said: " 'Ali became henceforth the most beloved of men to me after the Apostle of Allah."
A delegation from Najran, including a number of the notables of the city, came to the Messenger of Allah. There came also three men who held authority over them. There was al -`Aqib, whose name was `Abdu'l-Masih. He was their commander and man of counsel, and no decision was 'taken without his approval. The second man was as-Sayyid, who was their chief and leader in all matters. His name was al-Ayham. The third was Abu Harithah ibn `Alqamah the bishop, who was their great man of learning, their leader (imam) in matters of faith and overseer of their houses of study. He was held in great honour, and enjoyed high status among them. Even Byzantine kings had built great churches for him, showering upon him all manners of special favours because of his great learning and diligence in the study of their faith.
On their way to the Messenger of Allah, Abu Harithah rode a mule, with his brother Kurz beside him; and a man called Bishr ibn `Alqamah walking with him. Abu Harithah's mule stumbled, and Kurz exclaimed: "Perish that man!" meaning the Messenger of Allah. Abu Harithah replied: "Rather, perish you, yourself!" "Why, O brother?" Kurz asked. He said: "By Allah, he is indeed the Prophet for whom we have been waiting." Kurz objected: "What prevents you then from following him?" "It is what these people have done for us"; .Abu Harithah said, "they have treated us with great honour and generosity, yet they have insisted on opposing him. Were I to follow him, they would take away from us all that you see."
Abu Harithah's brother Kurz kept what he told him a secret until he accepted Islam. He hurried beating his mount and reciting To you (Muhammad) this mount anxiously hastens; Even though its fetus is protruding big in its belly. Its faith is indeed opposed to the faith of the Christians. When Kurz arrived in Medina, he went to the Prophet and declared his Islam.
It is reported that the delegation of Najran arrived at the Mosque of the Messenger of Allah at the mid-afternoon hour. They were clad in silks and rich apparel - none of the Arabs had ever come to the Prophet so richly dressed. Abu Bakr said: "May my father and mother be a ransom for you, O Apostle of Allah, if you would wear your rich apparel which the Byzantine Emperor (Qaysar) presented to you, so that they would see you dressed in it!" It is reported that they came to the Messenger of Allah and greeted him with the salutation of peace, but he neither returned their greeting nor did he speak to them. They went out looking for `Uthman ibn `Affan and `Abdu'r-Rahman ibn `Awf, who were acquaintances of theirs. They found them in an assembly of the Immigrants, and complained to them:
"Your Prophet wrote to us a letter, and here are we come in answer to his call. We greeted him, but he did not even return our greeting or speak to us. What is your advice to us?" `Uthman and `Abdu'r-Rahman asked 'Ali: "What is your advice, O Abu 'l-Hasan (that is, 'Ali's agnomen) to these people?" He answered: "I suggest that they take off their rich attire and rings, and then go back to him." They did as he suggested and went to the Prophet; they greeted him, and he returned their greeting. He then said: "By Allah, they came to me the first time, and Iblis (that is, Satan) was with them."
They spent that day questioning and debating with him. The bishop asked: "What do you say concerning the Lord Christ, O Muhammad?" "He is the servant of Allah and His Apostle", he replied. They then engaged in hot disputation concerning the status of Jesus with Allah. Finally, Allah sent down to the Prophet the beginning verses of surah 3, `The House of `Imran', around seventy verses following one another. Among the verses which Allah sent down were:
Surely the similitude of Jesus with Allah is like that of Adam. He created him out of clay; then He said to him "be " and he was. This is the truth from your Lord, so be not among the doubters. Whoever, therefore, shall dispute with you concerning him after the knowledge that has come to you, say: "Come! Let us call together our sons and your sons, our women and your women, and ourselves and yourselves; then let us pray and invoke Allah's curse upon the liars. " [Qur'an 3 : 59 - 61 ].
They said to the Prophet: "We shall engage you in this test of prayer (mubahalah) tomorrow morning." But Abu Harithah said to his Companions: "Consider well! If Muhammad comes to you for the mubahalah with his grandsons and people of his Household, beware that you not engage him in this test of prayer. If, however, he comes with his Companions and followers, then you may enter into this contest with him."
Aban reported on the authority of Hasan al-Basri (an important theologian and traditionist of the second generation) that the Messenger of Allah went next morning holding Hasan and Husayn by the hand; he was followed by Fatimah, and 'Ali walking by his side. al-`Aqib and as-Sayyid likewise came with two sons, one of whom was decorated with two pearls as large as dove's eggs. They all surrounded Abu Harithah. Abu Harithah asked: "Who are these who are with him?" He was told, "This is his paternal cousin and husband of his daughter, these are their two sons, and this is his daughter. They are the dearest people to him and nearest to his heart."
The Messenger of Allah stepped forward and knelt on his knees. Abu Harithah exclaimed: "By Allah, he knelt as would prophets for the mubahalah ! " He then stepped back frightened, and refused to engage in the contest. as-Sayyid said: "Come forth, O Abu Harithah, for the mubahalah ! " Abu Harithah answered: "I see here a man coming for the mubahalah with courage and resolution. I am afraid that if he be truthful, the year would not elapse with any Christian remaining alive to drink water." It is reported that, had they engaged the Prophet in the mubahalah, torment would have come down from heaven against them. They finally, said: "O Abu 'l-Qasim, we shall not enter with you into a test of prayer, but rather we wish to make peace with you." The Messenger of Allah thus concluded a truce with them with the agreement that they remit two thousand costly garments, the value of each being forty sound dirhams. He had a document drawn up concerning this agreement. He then said to Abu Harithah, the bishop: "I see that you shall go to your saddle sleepy and thus will tie it onto your mount front to back." When he prepared to leave, he did actually saddle his mount upside down. He then exclaimed: "I bear witness that Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah! "
Then the Messenger of Allah sent 'Ali to Yemen to call its people to Islam. It is also reported that he was sent in order to receive the fifth of their obligatory alms (zakat), teach them the precepts of Islam and clarify for them the things that are lawful and those that are unlawful. He was also sent to the people of Najran to collect their freewill gifts, and to bring back to the Prophet their jizyah.
It is related by Abu `Abdillah, al-Hafiz on the authority of `Amr ibn Shas al-Aslami who said: "I was with 'Ali ibn Abi Talib with a group of people. 'Ali acted somewhat coolly towards me, and I felt some hostility in my heart toward him. When I returned to Medina, I accused him to anyone I met. I came one day to the Mosque where the Messenger of Allah was sitting. He gazed at me until I sat near him. He then said: "O `Amr ibn Shas, you have hurt me." I answered: "To Allah do we belong, and to Him we shall return. I take refuge in Allah and in Islam from injuring the Apostle of Allah." He declared: "Anyone who hurts 'Ali has hurt me."
The Prophet had previously sent Khalid ibn al-Walid to the people of Yemen to call them to Islam, but they did not listen to him. al-Bard' (a well-known Companion) related: "I was with 'Ali when we came near the people; he led us in prayer. Then seating us all in one line, he began to read to them the Messenger of Allah's letter. Thereupon the tribe of Hamdan in its entirety entered Islam. 'Ali wrote concerning this to the Apostle of Allah, who fell prostrate when the letter was read to him. Then lifting his head up, he said: "Peace be upon the people of Hamdan." It is also related that 'Ali said: "The Messenger of Allah sent me to Yemen. I asked, `O Apostle of Allah, would you send me when I am yet a youth, to judge among the people without knowing what judging really is?' He struck me with his hand in the chest and prayed, `O Allah, guide well his heart and confirm his tongue!' By Him in whose hand is my soul, I never thereafter doubted any judgment I passed between any two people. "
On the 25th Dhu'l-Qi'dah, the last month of 10/632, the Apostle of Allah set out from Medina for the pilgrimage. He declared the call for the hajj (greater pilgrimage) to all the Muslims. People made ready to set out with him; thus the suburbs of Medina and its districts were crowded with pilgrims. When they reached Dhu'l-Hulayfah, Asma' daughter of `Umays gave birth to Muhammad son of Abu Bakr. The Prophet remained there that night for her sake, entering, however, with the people into the state of consecration in Dhu'l-Hulayfah. He intended that ihram (state of consecration) be for both the lesser and .greater pilgrimages. He thus led the animal sacrifices - leading with him sixty six head of cattle and camels.
`Ali also set out for the hajj from Yemen, leading with him thirty-four head of cattle and camels for sacrifice. He set out with the fighters who accompanied him to Yemen, and brought the rich garments which he had received from the Christians of Najran. As the Messenger of Allah approached Mecca on the road from Medina, the Commander of the Faithful, 'Ali, approached it at the time on the road from Yemen. He preceded the army in order to meet the Messenger of Allah, who was gladdened by his coming. He asked `Ali: "How did you determine the rising of the crescent, O 'Ali?" He answered: "O Apostle of Allah, you did not write to me concerning your sighting of the moon. I therefore made my intention to agree with yours; I prayed, `O Allah, grant me sighting of the moon similar to that of your Prophet.' " The Prophet concurred saying: "You are my partner in my pilgrimage rites, my devotions and sacrifices. Continue, therefore, in your state of consecration, and hasten to your army so that we may all meet in Mecca.
It is also reported on the authority of the Imam as-Sadiq that the Messenger of Allah led with him one hundred head for sacrifice, but slaughtered only some sixty animals. He gave the rest, some thirty animals, to `Ali. When 'Ali reached his army, he found that the people had donned the garments which he had brought from Najran. He reproached his representative saying: "Woe to you, how could you do this without the permission of the Apostle of Allah?" He answered: "They asked me to give them the garments, so that they would adorn themselves with them, and perform their ihram in them." He retorted: "Bad indeed is that which both you and they have done! " He thus took the garments away from them and packed them in sacks. Men began to complain against 'Ali from all sides. Then the crier of the Messenger of Allah went around calling: "Hold your tongues from any accusations against 'Ali, for he is harsh in Allah's cause!"
When the Prophet arrived in Mecca and performed the rites of circumambulation (tawaf of the Ka'bah) and running (sa`i, between the two hills of as-Safa and al-Marwah), Gabriel came down to him while he was on al-Marwa with this verse: Complete the pilgrimage and the lesser pilgrimage for Allah . . . [Qur'an 2 :196] . He thus delivered a sermon, praising Allah, then said: "The `umrah has entered into the hall' in this manner, and shall remain so till the Day of Resurrection" - and he intertwined his fingers. He continued: "Had I encountered at the start of my journey what I encountered at its end (that is, meeting 'Ali and his army), I would not have brought animal sacrifices with me." He then ordered his crier to declare to the people: "Anyone of you who has not brought animal sacrifices with him, let him release himself from the state of consecration and make his pilgrimage only an `umrah. But as for those who did bring their animal sacrifices with them, let them remain in their state of consecration."
A man of the tribe of `Adiyy came to the Prophet and objected: "O Apostle of Allah, would you lead us to Mina (one of the pilgrimage stations) while our hairs drip with the water of washing after sexual relations with our wives?" He answered: "You shall not believe in it until you die! " (The reference here is to the mut'ah [enjoyment] of the hajj, which means release from the state of ihram for the `umrah and then renewing one's consecration for the hajj. ) Another man, Suraqah ibn Malik ibn Ju'shum, came forth and enquired: "O Apostle of Allah, is this for this year only, or for ever?" "No", he answered, "but forever." Thus all the people, except those who had brought their animal sacrifices with them, were released from the sate of ihram.
On the day of leaving Mina, the Messenger of Allah spoke again to the people and bade them farewell. When he had completed his pilgrimage rites and set out for Medina, the Messenger of Allah reached the place known as Ghadir Khumm. Even though it was not a suitable spot for stopping, because of the lack of water and pasturage, still Gabriel came down to the Prophet and ordered him to halt and appoint `Ali as imam (spiritual and temporal leader) of the people. The Prophet protested saying: "My community is still too close to the jahiliyyah." It was, however, revealed to him that this was a command which could not be revoked. The verse: O Apostle, convey that which has been sent down to you from your Lord! For if you do not, you would not have conveyed His message, and Allah shall protect you from the people [Qur'an 5 :67] , was sent down.
Thus the Messenger of Allah and all the Muslims around him dismounted in the spot which we have already mentioned, on an exceedingly hot day. The Messenger of Allah ordered that canopies be spread over some trees. He likewise ordered that saddles be brought and stacked one on top of another (so as to make a pulpit). He then ordered his crier to cry out to the people "Hasten to congregational prayer! " The people gathered to the Prophet from all sides, many of them wrapping their feet with their garments because of the heat.
The Prophet mounted the saddles until he stood at the top, then called. 'Ali to his side. As `Ali stood at the right hand of the Prophet, the latter spoke to the people, first praising Allah and exalting His Name, then admonishing the people and informing them of his impending end. He said: "I have been summoned, and I shall soon answer. My time to depart your company has come. Yet I am leaving with you that to which, if you hold fast, you shall never go astray: the Book of Allah and my progeny, the people of my Household. They shall not be separated until they come to me at Hawdu'l-Kawthar (a paradisial pool)." He then cried out with a loud voice: "Am I not more master over you than your own selves?" "By Allah, yes!" they all answered. He said: "Then continue in this manner." He then took hold of 'Ali's two arms and lifted them high until people could see his white underarms. He said: "Of whomever I am the master, 'Ali is his master. O Allah, befriend those who hold loyalty to him, and be an enemy to those who hold hostility towards him. Grant support to those who support him, and abandon those who abandon him! "
Following this, the Prophet came down; it was the noon hour. He offered two rak`ahs of prayer, and when the sun reached its meridian his mu'adhdhin raised the call of prayer, and the Prophet led the people in the noon prayer. He then sat in his tent and ordered `Ali to sit in a tent close by. The Prophet then ordered all the Muslims to go into `Ale's tent in groups to congratulate him on appointment to the imamate, and greet him with the title of "Amiru'l mu'minin" (Commander of the Faithful). For the rest of the day, people went in and out of `Ale's tent in accordance with the Prophet's command. He then ordered his wives and all the wives of the men of faith to enter with him into `Ale's tent and greet him with the title of "Commander of the Faithful". They all did as he ordered. The man who was most lavish in his congratulations was `Umar ibn al-Khattab. He said among other things, "Well well! O `Ali, you have now become my master (maula) and the master of every man and woman of faith."
Hassan (the Prophet's poet) recited in honour of this occasion the following verses:
On the day of Ghadir Khumm their Prophet called them,With a voice loud for all to hear.
Said he.- "Who is your master arid patron?"
They replied, without a trace of' hostility:
"Your Cod is our Master, and you are our patron;Nor would you find among us today anyone who might abandon you. "
Said he: "Rise up, O Ali, for I Have chosen you as imam and guide after me.Anyone whose master I am, lie too shall be his patron;Be you all to him true supporters and loyal allies!"
There did lie pray: "O Allah, be a friend to his friend,And are enemy to anyone who shows Ali hostility!"
The Messenger of Allah said to Hassan, "You shall be fortified always with the Holy Spirit (that is, Gabriel) so long as you render us support with your tongue. The Messenger of Allah did not depart that spot until Allah sent down to him: Today have I perfected your religion for you; I have completed my favour unto you, acid leave chosen Islam as a religion for you [Qur'an 5 :3] ; He concurred: "Praise be to Allah for the perfection of faith, the fullness of His favor, His pleasure with my apostleship, and the authority (walayah) of 'Ali after me."
When the Messenger of Allah arrived in Medina from the farewell pilgrimage, he appointed Usamah ibn Zayd a leader of a large army and ordered him to set out for the spot wherein his father had been slain. He said to him: "Let your horses reach the end of Syria and the beginnings of the lands of Byzantium." He included in Usamah's army the notables of the Immigrants and the Ansar. Among them were Abu Bakr, `Umar, and Abu `Ubaydah. Usamah set up camp in a place called al-Jurf (just at the outskirts of Medina). The Apostle of Allah, however, fell ill; it was the illness of which he died. He repeated often during his illness: "Send off Usamah's army." He did so in order that there would be no people remaining in Medina after his death who would show discord concerning the imamate of the Muslims, or covet command. This position (he hoped) would be assumed without opposition by its rightful claimant.
The Death Of The Prophet
It is reported that when the Prophet sensed the illness which had come upon him, on a Saturday or Sunday towards the end of Safar the second month of 10/632, he took 'Ali by the hand, and accompanied by a few of his Companions, went to al-Baqi` (the graveyard of Medina). There he exclaimed: "Peace be upon you O people of the graves; be of good cheer in what you have attained over (living) people. Seditions have come, thick and dark as a black night; the beginnings of some follow quickly upon the ends of others! " He said further: "Gabriel used to review the Qur'an with me once a year, but this year he reviewed it with me twice.
I see this as an indication of the coming of my end." Then addressing `Ali, he continued: "I was, O 'Ali, given the choice of the treasures of this world and eternal life besides, or Paradise, but I chose Paradise and meeting my Lord. When I die, you should wash me and cover my nakedness, for no one shall look upon it except a man born blind."
The Prophet then returned to his home, where he remained ill for three days. On Wednesday, he went out to the mosque with his head tightly bandaged with a cloth. He was leaning on 'Ali with his right hand, and on al-Fadl ibn al-,`Abbas with the other. He sat on the pulpit and praised Allah repeatedly, then said: "O people, my term among you shall soon come to an end. Let, therefore, anyone who has entrusted me with an object of value, come to me that I may return it to him. Anyone to whom I am in debt, let him come and declare it to me." A man rose up and said: "O Apostle of Allah, you owe me a promise; I married, and you promised me three ounces of precious metal." He said: "Give them to him, O al Fadl."
He remained thus Wednesday and Thursday, but on Friday, he again sat on the pulpit and spoke to the people. He said: "O people, there is nothing which can stand between Allah and anyone that could benefit a man or ward off evil from him except good deeds. O people, let no ambitious man claim anything, or one full of desires, desire anything! For by Him Who sent me with the truth, only good deeds coupled with Allah's mercy can lead to salvation. Even I, had I rebelled against Allah, would have fallen. O Allah, I have thrice conveyed (that is, Allah's command concerning `Ali)." He then stepped down and led the people in prayer, then entered his chamber. He was at the time in the house of Umm Salamah. He remained there one or two days; then `A'ishah came asking him to move to her chamber in order that she might nurse him. He agreed and moved to the house in which `A'ishah lived.
His illness persisted for some days, until he became seriously ill. Bilal then came at the time of the dawn prayers, while the Apostle of Allah was overwhelmed by his illness, and called out: "Time for prayers, may Allah have mercy upon you! " The Prophet answered: "Let one of the men lead the rest in prayers." `A'ishah added: "Order Abu Bakr (i.e., her father) that he lead the people in prayers!" Hafsah said: "Order `Umar (i.e., her father)!" The Prophet retorted: "Cease, for you two are like Joseph's little women! "  He then rose, even though he was unable to stand because of weakness. He leaned on `Ali and al-Fadl and went to the mosque dragging his feet because of weakness. When he entered, he found that Abu Bakr had already stood facing the niche. He beckoned to him, and Abu Bakr stepped back. The Messenger of Allah stood up, and uttering the formula of consecration (that is, takbiratu'l-ihram), he began the prayers. When he had done and returned to his chamber, he called for Abu Bakr and `Umar along with others who were present and said: "Have I not commanded you to send off Usamah's army?" Abu Bakr replied: "I had already set out, but I returned to see you." `Umar said: "I did not go because I did not wish to be absent, and thus have to enquire of the caravan to get news about you." He repeated three times: "Send off Usamah's army!"
He then fell into a swoon because of the fatigue which he suffered. He remained thus unconscious for a while, so that the Muslims began to weep and his wives and children began to wail loudly. But he regained consciousness and said: "Bring me a pen and shoulder blade that I may inscribe for you a writ after which you shall never go astray! " Again, he lost consciousness. One of his Companions present was about to go and fetch a pen and shoulder blade, but `Umar said to him: "Come back, for he is hallucinating!" When the Prophet again regained consciousness, some of his Companions said: "O Apostle of Allah, should we not bring you a pen and shoulder blade?" "No", he said, "not after what you have said! Rather, keep well my memory through kindness to the people of my Household. Treat with kindness the people of dhimmah (that is, Jews and Christians), and feed the poor. Observe regular prayers, and be kind to the women whom your right hands possess."
He continued to repeat these injunctions until he could endure no longer, and turned his face away from the people. Everyone got up and left except al-`Abbas, al-Fadl, 'Ali and others of his close family; they stayed by his side. al-`Abbas said: "O Apostle of Allah, if this affair (that is, the succession) shall remain forever with us (that is, the tribe of Hashim) after you, then announce to us the good news! If, however, you know that we shall be forced to abandon it against our will, then commend us to the people." He said: "You are those who shall be oppressed after me."
He then fell silent. The people wept as they got up to leave. When they had all gone, he demanded: "Let my brother `Ali ibn Abi Talib and my uncle return to me! " When they had sat down, the Messenger of Allah said: "O al-`Abbas, uncle of the Apostle of Allah, would you accept to execute my will, carry out my funeral rites and remit my debts? " He replied: "Your uncle is an old man with many dependants, and you are more powerful than a strong gale in generosity and bounteous giving! There are incumbent upon you such expectations, that your uncle shall be unable to fulfill."
The Prophet then turned to 'Ali and put to him the same questions. `Ali replied: "Yes, O Messenger of Allah." "Come close to me", the Prophet said. As 'Ali bent down, he embraced him and, taking his ring from his finger, said: "Take it and put it on your finger! " The Prophet then called for his sword and suit of armour - or according to some reports Gabriel brought them down from heaven - and gave them to the Commander of the Faithful saying: "Receive these during my life! " He also gave him his mule and saddle, and said: "Go to your home with Allah's blessings."
Next morning, he allowed no one to come in to see him because of his grave illness. 'Ali, however, stayed beside him, not leaving him except for necessary errands. As `Ali left briefly for a special need, the Prophet awoke and said: "Call my friend back to me." He again was overcome by weakness. `A'ishah said: "Call Abu Bakr." When he came, the Prophet looked at him and turned away his face. He insisted: "Call back for me my brother and friend! " Hafsah said: "Call `Umar for him! " When he came, the Prophet likewise turned his face away from him. Again he demanded: "Call my brother and friend to me!" Umm Salamah then said: "Call 'Ali for him, for he wants no one else." When Ali came close to him, he bent down and the Messenger of Allah spoke to him privately for a long time. `Ali then went and sat a little to the side. He dozed for a while until the Messenger of Allah fell asleep. He then went out, and the people asked him: "O Abu 'I-Hasan, what did he confide to you?" He said: "The Messenger of Allah instructed me in a thousand branches of knowledge. Each branch opened to, me a thousand other branches. He also charged me with things which I shall, if Allah wills, fulfill."
The condition of the Messenger of Allah became grave, and lie was near death. As his soul was about to depart, he said: "O 'Ali, place my head in your lap, for Allah's command is about to be fulfilled. When my soul is released, take it in your hand and rub it on your face. Turn then my face towards the qiblah, prepare me and be the first to offer the funeral prayer over me. Do not leave me until you have put me in my tomb. Seek Allah's help."
'Ali placed the Prophet's head in his lap, whereupon he lost consciousness. Fatimah bent over him, gazing at his face and raising the dirge for him as she cried, and said:
"A radiant face has he, for which the rain clouds pour down;sufficient help for orphans and a protection for widows was he! "
The Messenger of Allah opened his eyes and said in a feeble voice: "O daughter, this was the saying of your uncle Abu Talib. Do not repeat it; rather say, 'Muhammad was only an apostle, before whom messengers came. Were he to die or be slain, would you then turn back upon your heels?' " [Qur'an 3 :144] . She wept bitterly for a long time; then he beckoned to her to come close. When she drew near to him, he whispered secret words in her ears, and her face brightened with a smile.
The Prophet finally breathed his last, while the right hand of the Commander of the Faithful rested beneath his jaw. As his soul flowed forth, `Ali lifted it up and rubbed his face with it. He then turned him to the qiblah, closed his eyes, spread his garment over him and looked after the rest of the burial preparations. Fatimah was later asked: "What did the Messenger of Allah say to you that you became so happy?" She replied: "He told me that I shall be the first of the people of his Household to follow him, and that in a short time I shall see him. This made me happy."
It is related that Umm Salamah, the Prophet's wife, said: "I placed my hand on the Messenger of Allah's breast on the day he died, and for a long time, even though I ate and performed my ablutions, the fragrance of musk did not leave my hand." It is related on the authority of Anas ibn Malik that Fatimah said: "When the Prophet's condition worsened and the pain of death had covered his face, I mourned him saying:
`O my father whose death Gabriel has announced (to creation);O my father whose Lord has taken him close to His presence;O my father whose abode shall be the gardens of Paradise;O my father who has answered the summons of the Lord Who called him forth!"'
It is reported on the authority of (the fifth Imam) al-Baqir that when the Messenger of Allah was at the point of death, Gabriel came down to him and asked: "Do you wish to return to this world?" "No", he answered, "I rather wish to be with the Lord Most High." as-Sadiq is said to have reported that Gabriel came down to the Prophet and said: "This is the last time I come down to this world, for you were my only object of interest in it."
It is reported that Fatimah and all the Muslims wailed in a loud voice and threw dust over their heads. The Prophet died two nights before the end of Safar in the tenth year of his migration. It is also reported that it was on Monday, the twelfth of Rabi `u 'l-Awwal.
When 'Ali wished to wash the Prophet's body for burial, he called al-Fadl ibn al-`Abbas to pour the water for him, after he had him blindfolded. 'Ali rent the Prophet's shirt from the top to his navel (so as not to expose his nakedness) before he washed, embalmed and shrouded him. Having finished with his washing and other preparations, `Ali prayed over the Prophet. Aban related on the authority of Abu Ja'far (the fifth Imam al-Baqir) that the people later asked 'Ali, "How should the funeral prayer over the Prophet be performed?" He answered: "The Messenger of Allah was our imam during his life, and he remains our imam after his death. The people, therefore, both young and old, went in groups of ten and prayed over him. This took all day Monday and Tuesday. They all prayed, male and female of the inhabitants of Medina and its neighbouring districts, without an imam.
The Muslims vehemently disputed as to where the Prophet was to be buried. `Ali then observed: "Allah did not receive the soul of a prophet in any place but that He chose that same place to be the spot of his grave. I shall therefore bury him in the chamber in which he was received. The Muslims all agreed with' this view. After the Muslims had prayed over him, al-`Abbas sent a man to Abu `Ubaydah al-Jarrah, who used to dig graves with a hollow in the middle (darih) for the people of Mecca. He also sent Zayd ibn Sahl to Abu Talhah, who used to dig graves with a hollow in the side (lahd) for the people of Medina. al-`Abbas prayed: "O Allah, choose which of the two you wish for your Prophet." Abu Talhah was found and was told to dig a grave for the Messenger of Allah. He dug a lahd for him, and the Commander of the Faithful, al-`Abbas, al-Fadl and Usamah ibn Zayd went in to perform the burial rites of the Messenger of Allah.
The Ansar called in from behind the house saying: "O `Ali, we remind you of Allah and our right to the Messenger of Allah, that it should not be lost today. Let a man of us go in, so that we too may have a share in the burial of the Messenger of Allah." 'Ali answered: "Let Aws ibn Khawli, who was a man of the `Awf ibn al-Khazraj tribe, come forth. He was one of those who took part in the Battle of Badr. He entered the house, and `Ali told him to go into the grave. He then placed the Messenger of Allah on the man's arms, who then lowered him into his tomb. `Ali then asked the man to come out, which he did. `Ali went down into the grave and uncovered the Prophet's face and placed his cheek on the ground, facing the qiblah, and laid him on his right side. He laid grave slabs and covered the tomb with earth.
The people took advantage of the preoccupation of the sons of Hashim with the Apostle of Allah, and of 'Ali's self-seclusion for mourning, to decide the matter of the Prophet's succession. Abu Bakr won the day because of the disagreement of the Ansar among themselves, and also because the people did not wish to postpone the decision until the men of Banu Hashim had completed all the funeral rites of the Apostle of Allah. Had they done so, the matter would have been decided in the proper manner. However, they gave allegiance (bay ah) to Abu Bakr because he was present. This book is not the proper place to explain all this; the subject is treated in its proper sources.
It is reported that Abu Sufyan came to the door of the Apostle of Allah and declared in verses:
O Sons of Hashim, Let not people take advantage of you;Especially the people of Taym ibn Murrah (the clan of Abu Bakr) and Adiyy (the clan of `Umar).This matter must remain with you, for with you must be its determination;There is no one more appropriate for it (that is, the caliphate) than Abu'l Hasan Ali.
Abul Hasan, grasp it with the hand of a determined man!For you are most suitable for this much-coveted office.
He then cried with a loud voice: "O sons of Hashim, sons of `Abd Manaf, would you accept Abu Fasil (that is, Abu Bakr), a despicable man and son of a despicable man, to rule over you? By Allah, if you so wish, I will fill the place for you with horses and men! " The Commander of the Faithful called out to him: "Go away Abu Sufyan, for by Allah, you do not mean what you say. Rather, you continue to plot against Islam and its people. We are still preoccupied with the Apostle of Allah. To every man shall belong what he has earned, and he alone shall be responsible for what he has done."
It is reported that the people of Quraysh sent for `Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl and his uncles al-Harith ibn Hisham and others and appointed them leaders of armies destined for Yemen and Syria, to which they were dispatched on that same night. They likewise sent for Abu Sufyan, whom they silenced by appointing Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan as a provincial governor.
It is reported that when people pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr, he was advised to recall Usamah's army and use it against any of the Arab tribes which might rise up against him. Most of the Immigrants had joined Usamah's army. Usamah asked Abu Bakr : "What would you yourself say?" He answered: "You see what the people have decided! I request that you exempt me and `Umar." Usamah assented: "I shall exempt you."
It is reported that no sooner had Usamah reached Syria than Abu Bakr dismissed him and appointed Yazid ibn~ Abi Sufyan as leader in his place. Thus only forty days elapsed between Usamah's departure from Medina and his return to it. When he arrived, he stood at the door of the mosque and declared: "O Muslims, I marvel at a man over whom the Messenger of Allah had set me as leader, yet who now sets himself up as commander over me and dismisses me! "
 See Qur'an 7:73 - 78; .54:23 - 31 and 91:11-15.
 al-Waqidi, Muhammad ibn `Umar ibn Waqid, Kitabu 'l-Maghazi, ed. B. Marsten Jones, 3 vols. (London: Oxford University Press, 1966), vol. 1, pp. 197-8.
 Aban ibn `Uthman (commonly known as "al-Ahmar"), was a traditionist contemporary with the sixth and seventh Imams and resident in Kufah and Basrah. See as-Sayyid Abu 'l-Qasim al-Musawi al-Khui, Mu'jam Rijali 'l-Hadith, 23 vols., 3rd ed. (Beirut, 1403/1983), vol. 1, pp. 157 - 64; al-A'lam, 10 vols. 3rd ed. (Beirut, 1389/1969), vol. 1, p. 21.
 al-Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Biharu 'l-Anwar, 110 vols. 2nd ed. (Beirut: Mu'assasatu'l-Wafa', 1403/1983), vol. 20, pp. 164-6.
 See the Arabic text of this book, p. 195.
 This refers to the narrative in the Qur'an concerning the Jews unlawfully fishing on the Sabbath, upon which they were transformed into apes. See Qur'an 2 :65 and 7:166. For a variety of views of the commentators on this narrative, see Ayoub, M., The Qur'an and its Interpreters, pp. 109-16.
 This refers to the controversy of hadithu'l-ifk, during the raid of Banu 'l-Mustaliq, where `A'ishah was suspected of adultery. See Ibn Hisham, vol. 3, pp. 341- 55, and Guillaume, pp. 493- 9.
 The reference here is to `Umar ibn al-Khattab and his protest against the truce of Hudaybiyyah between the Muslims and the Quraysh, represented by Suhayl ibn `Amr. See Ibn Hisham, vol. 3, pp.365-6, and Guillaume, p.504.
 See al-Waqidi; vol. 2, p. 364.
 See al-Bukhari, vol. 5, p. 87.
 See Qur'an 9 :60. This is a group of the Quraysh who did not enter into Islam, but who were sympathetic. The Prophet accorded them special treatment in order to win them over.
 See Qur'an 3:103 and 7:86.
 This is a reference to the Khawarij (seceders) who rebelled against 'Ali after the Battle of Siffin. The Hadithu'l-Khawarij is a well known tradition reported in many versions in all the major books of hadith. See for example, Muslim, vol. 7, pp. 169-75. For the version here quoted, see al-Bukhari, vol. 8, pp. 52- 53.
 See al-Bukhari, vol. 8, p. 53.
 See Qur'an 9 :38 - 57.
 See al-Bayhaqi, vol. [? ] , (not printed).
 See note 53 above.
 The question of who led the prayers during the Prophet's illness became crucial in choosing his successor. Shi'i sources have insisted that Abu Bakr was not allowed to lead the prayers as long as the Prophet lived. Thus the Prophet compared `A'ishah, daughter of Abu Bakr, and Hafsah, daughter of `Umar, to the foolish women who jealously taunted the wife of the Egyptian ruler for her infatuation with Joseph's beauty. See Qur'an 12 : 30 - 31.
 See Qur'an 2:126.
In Rajab, the Prophet sent letters and emissaries to the Arab tribes which had entered into Islam in order to invite them to the jihad. This was the Battle of Tabuk, which the Prophet led
against the Byzantines and their Arab clients. He wrote to the tribes of Tamim, Ghatafan and Tayy. He also sent a message to `Attab ibn Usayd, his representative in Mecca, to make ready for
battle against the Byzantines.