Every sect has interpreted the meaning of ùMeezan according to their own views. Some opine that the deeds shall literally be weighed. While some say that the deeds shall be given a physical
form and then weighed. The good deeds shall be given a beautiful face, while the evil deeds an ugly one. Allamah Ne’matullah Jazaeri in “Anware No’maniyah” says, that according to trustworthy and
consecutively transmitted reports it clearly proves that the deeds shall be given a physical form and then they shall be weighed. (Ehsanul Fawaed).
In some traditions it is related, that ths deeds will be weighed with the weight of the deeds of the prophets and Their successors. Hence in one ziyarat it is stated: “peace be on you, o the weighing scale” Here Imam Ali (A.S.) is referred to as the weighing scale. The prayers of all mankind will be weighed with the weight of the prayers of Imam Ali (A.S.). Imam Jafar-as-Sadiq (A.S) says, that the weighing scale (in which the prayer and deeds of men shall be weighed) are the prophets (Ambiya) and Their Successors (Awsiya). On the day of Qayamat our prayers will be compared with the prayars of Imam Ali (A.S). Whether the humility and Sincerity, which were present in the prayers of Imam Ali (A.S.) are found in our prayers or no. Our generosity, pavery, mercy and forgiveness are like His (A.S.) or no. Hence our deeds should not be contrary to His, so as not to turn away from the righteous scale (Ali A.S.) and turn towards His enemies mu awiyah and Yazid, and walk on their paths. And our characters should not be like those who usurpsd the garden of ufadak of Hazrat zahra (A.S.). (maad)
Allah says in the our an: “And the measuring out on that day they will be just, then as for him whose measure (of good deeds) is heavy, those are they who shall be successful. And as for him whose measure (of bad deeds) is light, those are they who have made their souls suffer loss because they disbelieved in our communications” (Surah-al-Aaraf: 9-10)
In another place He says: “The terrible calamity what is the terrible calamity and what will make you comprehend what the terrible calamity is?
The day on which men will be as scattered moths, And the mountains shall be as loosened wool.
Then as for him whose measure of good deeds is heavy, he shall live a pleasant life. And as for him whose measure of good deeds is light, his abode shall de the abyss. And whose will make you know what it is? A burning fire.” (Surah-al-Qare’ah: 1-11)
The best actions which help to increase the measure of good deeds in the scales in Qayamat, are sending salawat on Mohammad (S.A.W.S.) and His progeny, and good character. I state below some traditions on the importance of Salawat, and later some incidents of good character.
Merits of Salawat
Shaikh Kulaini narrates from Imam Jafar-as-Sadiq (A.S.) or Imam Mohammad-al-Baqir (A.S.) that he said, “For increasing the measure of good deeds in the scales (meezan), no other deed carries mweight than sending Salawat on Mohammad (S.A.W.S) and His progeny. A person s deeds will be weighed, and when his good deeds will seem less, salawat will be pought and kept, and lo the good deeds will increase.”
The Holy prophet (S.A.W.S) says, that on the day of oayamat when the deeds shall be weighed, I will be present there, It a persons bad deeds will be weighing more than his good ones, I will ping along the salawat which he sent upon Me, and add it to the good deeds thereby increasing its weight.
Shaikh Sadooq narrates from Imam Ali-ar-Reza (A.S.) that He said, that if a person does not have the means to Iessen the stock of his bad deeds, he should send salawat and salaam on Mohammad (S.A.W.S.) and His progeny abundantly, doing so will decrease (the weight of) his sins.
Allamah Qutubuddin Rawandi narrates in “Dawaat” that Hazrat Mohammad (S.A.W.S.) said, that if a person in my love and affection sends salawat on me thrice every day and night, it becomes the right on Allah that He should forgive his sins which he committed during the day and night.
The Holy prophet (S.A.W.S.) says, that one nioht I saw in a dream my uncle ibne Abdul Muttalib and my cousin Ja far ibne Abi Talib. In front of them was kept a tray full of plums. After sometime as they ate, the plums turned into grapes. Then again as they ate, the grapes turned into fresh dates. They again started eating them. I went towards them and asked, “May my father and mother be your ransom which particular deeds have you performed that has excelled all other deeds, and has mads these blessings to be showered on you ?” They replied, “May our parents be your ransom Those deeds are: sending salawat on You, feeding water to the pligrims (of Haj), and Love (walayah) of Ali ibne Abi Talib (A.S.).
The Holy prophet (S.A.W.S.) says that, if anyone writes my name in a book and sends salawat on me, the Angels will seek forgiveness for him till my name remains in that book.
Shaikh Kulaini narrates from Imam Jafar-as-sadiq (A.S.) that he said that whenever you talk about the Holy prophet (S.A.W.S.), send salawat on Him.
When a person sends salawat once on Him, Allah orders s thousand ranks of His Angels to send a thousand salawat on the person himself. And because of Allah and His Angels sending salawat, the whole ceration sends salawat on him. And the person who does not do so, is an arrogant and ignorant person. And Allah, His prophet, and the Holy Ahlulbait (A.S.) leaves such aperson to himself.
It is written in “Ma aniyal Akhbaar” in the context of the meaning of the verse (Ayah) of salawat from Imam Jafar-as-sadiq (A.S.), that the meaning of salawat according to Allah is blessings (Rehmat), while to the Angels it is safety and for the people it is a supplication (du a) In the same book it is written that a narrator asked Imam (A.S.) as to how should we recite salawat on Mohammad (S.A.W.S.) and His progeny Imam (A.S.) erplied,:
ُ. The narrator continues, that I then asked Imam (A.S.) as to what was the reward for this Salawat? Imam (A.S.) replied, “A person reciting this Salawat becomes clean from the sins as if he was just born from his mother’s womb”.
Shaikh Abul Futuh Razi narrates from the Hloy prophet (S.A.W.S.) that He said, “on the night of me raj when I ascended to the heavens, I saw an Angel who had a thousand hands. On sach of his hands there were a thousand fingers, and he was counting some thing on them. I asked Jipaeel as to who that Angel was, and what was he come thing? Jipaeel replied that the Angel had been appointed by Allah to count the drops of rain, so that it may be known as to how many drops have fallen down to the earth. I turned towards the Angel and asked him, “Do you know the total amount of the rain-drops which have fallen down on the earth from the day Allah created this world till now”? To which he replied, “o prophet of Allah I swear by my Lord who has chosen You (as a blessing) for mankind, verily I know the total amount of rain-drops fallen on the earth till now. Even to the extent that how many drops have fallen in the wilds, in the properous lands, in the gardens, and also in the cemetary”.
Then I toid him that I was vary much surprized by the power of his mind and intellect and the ability to remember, to which he replied, “o prophet of Allah verily this ability to count proves futile I try to count only one thing”. I asked him as to what calculation was that. He replied, “when people of Your Ummah gather at one place and send salawat upon You, it is beyond my ability and capacity to count the rewards for it”.
Shaikh Kulaini relates, that whoever recites the following salawat seven times during Asr on Fridays, Allah gives him the rewards equal to all His servants, and accepts his deeds and prayers of that day. It is also related that the reward will be equal to the sight in the eyes of all man:
It is related that whoever recites the following salawat after morning aprayers, will not die untill he sees his Imame zamana (S.A.W.S.).
Narration’s of Good character (Husne Khalq):
Anas ibne Malik says, that once I was in the presence of the Holy prophet (S.A.W.S.) who had worn a Yemeni shawl, the edges of which were shabby and torn. Suddenly a nomad came and pulled His shawl with such severity, that the edges gave way. He then shouted, “O Mohammad! Load all this wealth on the two camels, for verily this wealth is Allah s, and not your father s”. The Holy prophet (S.A.W.S.) heard his words silently, and then said. “Surely this is Allah s wealth, but I too am Allah s servant. And O nomad, should I retaliate (for your harsh conduct)”? The nomad replied in the negative. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.S.) asked him the reason. He said, “O Master! Because giving bad in exchange of bad is not your nature”. The Prophet (S.A.W.S.) smiled and gave order to load barley on one of his Camels and dates on the other, and blessed him.
Isam bin Mutlaqe Shaami says, that once when I went to madina, I saw Imam Husain ibne Ali (A.S.) .I was very much influenced by His conduct and manners, and thus envy overtook me .I thought of revealing the enmity which I bore towards his father. I went upto Him and said, “Are you the son of Abu Turab? You should know then, thet the inhabitants of Syria attributed this name to Ali (A.S.), and thereby ridiculed and insulted him. I again asked him, “Are you the son of Abu Turab”? Imam (A.S.) answered, “Yes, I am”. Then I started abusing Imam (A.S.) and His Father. He looked at me with kindness and said, “Take to forgiveness and enjoin good and turn aside from the ignorant. And if a false imputation from the shaitaan afflict you, seek refuge in Allah. Sureyl Hi is hearing, knowing. Surely those who guard (against evil), when a visitaation ftom the shaitaan afflicts them they become mindful, and lo they see. And their pethren increase them in error, then they cease not”. (surah-al-A araf- 199-202). In this verse, the Holy prophet (S.A.W.S.) s good conduct is discussed. Allah ordered the prophet to bear patiently the bad behaviour of the people, and stopped Him from taking revenge by bad attitude in exchange of people, and behaviour. And ordered Him to ignore foolish people, and to seek refuge of Allah from the temptation of shaitaan. Then Imam Husain (A.S.) said, “(o Isam) remain silent and thus lessen your burden (of sins) and seek forgiveness for yourself and for me. If you seek my help, I shall give you a helping hand, if you are desirous of gifts, I shall present you. And if you desire consultation in any matter, I shall advise you”. Imam Husain (A.S.) by his knowledge of the unseen (Ghaib) and wisdom (Hikmah) understood that I was regretting my mistake and was repenting upon it.He therefore said, “He said, (There shall be) no reproof against you this day, (surah-al-Yusuf:92)
The above verse was said by prophet Yusuf (A.S.) to His pothers who repented and asked me, “Are you a native of syria”? I Him. Imam Husain (A.S.) then asked me, “Are you a native of Syria”? I answered in the affirmative. Then He said, “verily the people of Syria are accustomed to abuse and ridicule us, for mu awiyah has left this as his custom amongst them, may Allah keep them alive as well as us too. Whatever desire you may have ask of me frankly, that will surely be fulfilled, and you will find me the best in it.” After hearing these words from the mouth of Imam Husain (A.S.), I was very much ashamed and abuses, which I incured upon Him and His Father. I was so much abashed that I wished the earth would swallow me. I tried to sneak away from His sight and hide myself amongst other people. But from that day onwards no one was more dear to me that Imam Husain (A.S.) and His Father (A.S.).
The verse (Ayah) which Imam Husain (A.S.) recited in the context of prophet Yusuf (A.S.) s tale is narrated that the pothers of prophet Yusuf (A.S.) recognised him that the king who had mercy on them was no other than their pother, whom they had tried to kill. Yusuf invited them to come along with their Father (prophet Ya qoob). They said, “whenever you invite us to your banquet every morning and evening, we feel ashamed about what we had done with you”. To which prophet Yusuf responsible for my present honour and glory. Even now I have ascended the throne of Eygpt, people look at me with the same sight and say: Glory be to Him who bestowed such honour to a slave puchased in twenty dirhams.
In reality it is because of you that I have gained this prestige and have become respected in the eyes of men, because they now know that I am your pother (and the son of prophet Ya qoop), and not a slave (as they previously thought). In fact I am from the progeny of prophet Ipaheem (A.S.). “It is also narrated that when prophet Ya qoob met prophet Yusuf, He asked Him as to what befell Him, to which Yusuf replied,” o father Do not ask me as to what (bad) my pothers did to me, but ask me what (favour) my Lord did to me”.
Shaikh Sadooq and others narrate, that in madina a person from the progeny of Caliph Umar ibne khattab frequently to troubled Imam moosa- al-kazim (A.S.). He insulted Imam (A.S.) and whenever he faced Him, he would start abusing Imam Ali (A.S.). one day a person told Imam –al-kazim (A.S.) that, “If you permit us we will kill this evil and unchaste man”. The Imam (A.S.) was infuriated and told them not to take such a step. Imam (A.S.) then inquired as to where would He find that person now. They told Him that he had a field near madina and would be there at that moment. Imam moosa-al-kazim (A.S.) sat on his mule and proceeded to meet him. He entered the field mounted on his mule . The person saw Him coming and shouted, “Do not spoil my field”. Imam (A.S.) advanced further and went and sat near him and his field. He replied that he had spent a hundred Ashrafis. Then Imam (A.S.) asked him as to how much gain he expected from it. He said, “should I tell you expect”. The man replied, “I expect tow hundred Ashrafis yield”.
Imam removed a bag containing three thousand Asjrafis and handing it to him said, “Iake this, for your field still needs proper ploughing. Almighty Allah will surely give you sustenance till you are alive”. The man kissed the forehead of Imam (A.S.) and requested Him to forgive his bad attitude. The Imam (A.S.) smiled and returned home. From that day onwards people saw him coming to the mosque daily, and whenever he looked at Imam moosa-al-kazim (A.S.). he would say: Allah best knows where He places His knowledge –surah-al-An am : 125. His companions asked him as to what was the reason for this sudden change. To which he replied, “Till now you have listened to what (bad) I said, and from now on listen to me what (good) I say”. Then he started praising Imam (A.S.), on hearing this his companions started fighting with him and he defended his claim. Imam turned towards His companions and said, “whatever you wished about this man (to kill him) was appropriate or what I did is right ? In exchange of some money I bought his friendship and ended his enmity (by favouring him)”.
Incidents of Good Character (Husne khalo):
Once malik ibne Ashtar was passing through a market of kufa wearing a cloak and a turban of hand weaved cloth. A man who had not recognized him, looked at him with contempt, and ridiculing him flung a sword. When people saw this they came to the man and said, “Do you know who the peron was whom you insulted thus”? He replied in the negative. To Commander of the faithful Ali (A.S.). Hearing this the person started trembling with fear and ran after malik to ask his pardon.
Malik at that moment was busy in prayers in the mosque. When he finishned his prayers, the person fell on his feet and started kissing them. Malik asked him the reason for it, to which he replied that he was ashamed of his rude behaviour and bad attitude. Malik replied, “Do not worry, for by Allah, before even entering this mosque I prayed to Allah for your forgiveness”. Malik ibne Ashtar had learnt the lesson of good charactefroImam Ali (A.S.) Himself, and hence even after being the commander in chief of the army of Imam Ali (A.S.), and one of His pave and valiant fighters, he did not retaliate, but instead forgave the man.
Regarding the pavery and valour of malik, Ibne Abli Hadeed mu tazili says that- if anyone in the Arabs or the non-Arabs swears that malik was the second in pavery and chivalry after Imam Ali (A.S.), and none equalled him, I shall bear witness to it. What else can I say regarding this fabulous personality, except that his life destroyed the Syrians and his death the Iraqis (meaning when alive he slayed the enemies of Ali (A.S.), and when he died the friends of Ali (A.S.) suffered a great loss)”. Regarding him Imam Ali (A.S.) said, “Malik holds the same status near me, as I held near the Holy prophet (S.A.W.S.)” meaning he was a source of my as I held near the Holy prophete. Then He turned towards His companions and said, “I wish one or two persons from amongst you could be like malik”. In short malik s pavery, chivalry, virtue a good character earned him a very dignified position .
when the person insulted him he was hot the least effected, nor did he become angry or retalite, but went to the mosque and prayed for the his forgiveness. We conlcude from the above incident, that malik had control over the passions of his self, and that this strength is more worthy of praise than the physical strength. Imam Ali (A.S.) has said, “The pavest man is the one who controls the passions of his selt”.
Allamah Husain Noori in the latter part of book umustadrakul Wasail quotes an incident of the celepated Scholar khwaja Nasiruddin Toosi. One day khwaja Naseer received a letter which contained abuses for him and filthy language. One of the sentences was : “The dog (referred to khwaja Naseer ) and the son of a dog”. When he read it he became serious, and sat down to answer it. He used neither a bad word nor filthy language and wrote: “You have addressed me as a dog, but it is not at all true. For a dog walks on his four legs and its paw has large nails, whereas I am a human who talks and laughs, and laughs, and my qualities are averse to that of a dog”. After finishing he declared openly that the writer of the letter was his friend from that day onwards and that he bore no animosity towards him.
The presence of such a good character in the personality of khwaja Naseeruddin Toosi is not strange. Allamah Hilli says regarding him that, “khwaja Naseeruddin Toosi was the greatest Scholar (Aalim) of his age. He has authored many books on Reason a Authority (Uloome Aqaliyah wa Naqaliyah), wisdom a knowledge, principals of Islam the true Religion. He was also the best in character among Ulamas”.
Khwaja Naseer had learnt the lesson of good character from the illustrious lives of our Holy Aimmah (A.S.). As has beenarrated, that once Imam Ali (A.S.) heard a person abusing oambar, tried to retalite in the same manner when Ali (A.S.) stoped him and said, “o oambar Remain silent, for verily the person will suffer because of our silence. Gain Allah a happiness by your silence and let the person fall prey to the mischief of Shaitaan. I swear by the Lord who split open the seed to grow plant from it, and who created human beings, that no other quality of a believer is more dear and who pleasing to Allah than controlling one s temper, and no other quality of a believer is disagreeable to shitaan than it. For verily silence all friends and foes alike praised khwaja Naseer. Jurji zaidan in the translation of Uadabul Lughattul Arabiyah writes that, “khwaja Naseeruddin Toosi s lipay contained four lac books, and he was a master in the field of Astrology a philosophy. He had under his care many endowment (waqf) properties of the mongols, in short he was a tower of light in the darkness of this world”.
I have discussed about the life of this great personality in my book ufawaede Razawiyah that his family was related to the uwasharah family of the kings of Jahrood, situated at distance of 10 Farsakh from oum. Khwaja Naseeruddin Toosi was born in Toos on 11 Jamadi ul Ula 597 A. 1201 A.D. and died on Sunday 18 zilhaj 672 A.H. / 1274 A.D. in kazmayn. It is engraved on his grave: “while their dog (lay) outstretching it s paws at the entrance”.(Surah-al-kahf: 18).
It is narrated that one day the great Scholar shaikh Ja far kashifal Ghita was distributing some money among the poor before going to recite the Namaz After finishing distributing, he became engrossed in prayers. “Give me the wealth of my Grandfather (referred to the Holy prophet a Aimmah)”. Shaikh Ja far replied that he had exhausted all the money and had nothing left to give him To which the Sayyed became enraged and spitted on the face of Shaikh Ja far. The Shaikh got up, and of the worshippers saying, “Those amongst you who hold my beard dear, please help this Ssyyed”. It is to be pondered upon what a great character shaikh Ja far had.
It is he who has authored ukaskful Ghita the famous book on Jurisprudence (Fiqh) while in journey. He himself used to say that, “It all the books on Jurisprudence (Fiqh) are compiled, I with my memory can write down all the points from the chapter of purification (Taharah) till the chapter on conpensation (for murder, Diyat)”.
There were many Ulamas from amongst his children. Allamah Noori says regarding him that, if one looks at the morning supplications of Shaikh Ja far, his virtues, piety a worship, will understand his high honour. He addressed himself thus: previously you were a Ja eefar (small river), then later became Ja far (a vast sea). Shaikh Ja far became a ship (to guide) and an ocean (of knowledge), and the master of Iraq and it s muslim inhabitants. His address to himself is because he says that even after having bestowed with such a high rank, he never forgot the days of his hardships. he is among from the battle of Jamal, Imam Ali (A.S.) said to Ahnaf bin oays. After returning from the battle of Jamal, Imam Ali (A.S.) started praising his companions and told Ahnaf bin oays, “If you look at them at that time of the night when eyes become heavy with sleep and voices fade away, when the birds are resting in their nests, these people remain awake due to the fear of Resurrection and the promised event (oayamat).
As Allah says in the our an: Do the people of that town think that they are fast asleep. Sometimes they get up in the dark of the night and weep and recite Namaz, and sometimes praise and glorify Allah in the niche of the mosque. During the dark night they lament a wail and supplicate to the Almighty Allah. O Ahnaf when you look at them during the night, you will see that their backs have dent (due to excessive bowing, Ruku), and they will be reciting the chapters of the our an in their prayers (Nanaz).
And will be weeping and wailing as if they have been surrounded by the fire from all sides, which has reached their throats. And when you hear them cry, you will think that their necks are bound in chains. And if you look at them during the day, you will find them men who walk slowly and humbly upon the earth, having a courteous speech. And when they are confronted with ignorant people they salute them, and when they pass by vain and useless things, they pass away with honour.
They keep their feet away from slander, and their tongues become speechless, so they do not speak against the honour of other people. And they keep their ears away from listening to vain sounds, and have applied in their eyes the collirium of refraining to see forbidden things. And surely they wish to enter the City of peace (Darus Salaam), the place where one remains free from doubts and anxieties”.
It is appropriate to quote here a saying of a monk. It is related from Oasam zahid, that one day I saw a monk in a sorry state at the gate of Baitul muqaddas in Jerusalem. I went towards him and toold him to advice me, to which he said, animals. He is timid and dejected, and is afraid that if he moves an inch, the beasts would devour him. And be like a man whose night passes in fear (of his Almighty) whereas the liars sleep in peace, and whose days are sogrrowfwhilethe powerful sit contented”. Then the monk turned his back away from me and started going away. I told him to advgice me further, to which he replied that , A thirsty man is contented even with a small quantity of water”.
It is related that one day the great Scholar (Aalim) sahib ibne Abbad asked for a drink (sherbet). A servant pought it for him. As he was about to drink, one of those present there told him not to drink it for it contained poison. The servant who had pought the drink was also present there. Sahib asked the informer as to what proof he had servant to consume, and thus the matter would be clear. Sahib replied, “Then give it to an animal to drink”. Sahib replied, “I do not even deem it to be lawful”. Saying this Sahib ordered the drink to be thrown away and told the servant to go away from his house, and not enter his house again. But he ordered that he should not be banished from the town, nor should people sever relations with him or despise him, because one should not rely on doubts, nor should punish a person by stopping his sustenance.
Sahib ibne Abbad was one of the viziers of the Buwaid kings, he helped the common man and was a marja . He was honoured by the people and they held him in high esteem. He was also a poet and an unequalled scholar of Arabic. It is said regarding him, that when he sat down to write his orthographies (amla), people gathered around him to heat at least six persons would be appointed to read out his orthographies to the people.
He had with him so many books on grammer that sixty camels could be loaded with them. He gave due respect to the Scholars (Ulama), Jurists (Fuqaha), Alids (Alawis) and Sadats, and encouraged them to write and compile books. Shaikh Hasan bin mohammad Oummi wrote Tareekhe oum , Shaikh Sadooq Uyoonul Akhbarur Reza , and Sa labi compiled Yateematud Dahr for his sake. Many Scholars, Jurists, Sadats and poets owe it to him. Every year he sent five thousand Ashrafis to the Jurists (Fqaha) of Baghdad. Whoever went to visit him after Namaze Asr in the month Ramazan, he did not allow the person to go away wiay without peaking the fast (Iftaar). Atleast a thousand people did Iftaar daily in his house during the month of Ramazan. He gave the same quantity of alms (sadaaah) in this one month, as he gave in the whole year. He has also written many couplets (Ash’ar) in the praise of Imam Ali (A.S.) and vilifying His enemies. He died on 24 Safar 358 A.H. in Ray , and is buried in Isfahan. His grave still lies there.