1. Eating or drinking anything in any quantity.
2. Sexual intercourse.
3. Any sexual activity that leads to ejaculation.
4. Attributing a lie to Allah, the Holy Prophet or the Imams (peace be upon them).
5. Allowing heavy dust or thick smoke (including tobacco) reach one's throat.
6. Submerging one's entire head in water.
7. Remaining in need of obligatory bathing for janabah,* haydh (menstruation) or nifas* up to the time of the morning adhan.
8. Taking a liquid enema.
9. Intentional vomiting.
* The state resulting from sexual intercourse with or without ejaculation. or seminal discharge while awake or asleep. * Bleeding that occurs after childbirth or abortion.
( 32 )
1) If a person commits intentionally and willingly an act which breaks the fast, that day's fast will be considered invalid, but the fast is valid if the action committed was unintentional or involuntary.
2) If one breaKs fast after merely being threatened, that fast is considered invalid and must be compensated later.
3) A fasting person can swallow the saliva gathered in the mouth, but nasal discharge and frothy sputum must be spitted out.
4) To rinse mouth during ablutions is allowed and while doing if the water slips unintentionally down into the throat it will not break the fast.
5) Taking of injection in the muscles or veins is permitted as also using of medicinal drops in ears or eyes is allowed.
6) Brushing of teeth is permitted, provided the froth or saliva does not enter the throat.
EXEMPTIONS FROM FASTING
Islam is called a natural religion. In other words, its laws unlike other creeds have logic and reason behind them and divine providence has fashioned them according to the nature of man and woman. It has no hard and fast rules for all age groups ignoring the state, or circumstances of the individual concerned. In such a case, its very claim to be natural and universal would have been open to doubt. How merciful and benign is the Creator, Who as a sign of His unbounded bounty exempted from fasting,persons passing through particular circumstances, and in a certain state of health or age group.
Following are those whom Islam has quite logically exempted from fasting and furthermore has released them from expiation for defaults:
1. Minors- for pre-puberty years.
2. Insane- for the period insanity lasts.
3. Unconscious- for the period of unconsciousness.
( 33 )
4. Non-Muslims -for the years before conversion to Islam.
There are different status of defaulted fasts:
1. An aged person who cannot fast is exempted from fasting and also from expiation. If, after Ramadhan, it becomes possible for that aged person to fast, he/she should make up the defaulted Rarnadhan fasts.
2. An aged person for whom fasting is hard is exempted but must pay 3/4 kilogram (1 Mud) of food to the poor for every day of defaulted fast. 3. One who has a condition which causes insatiable thirst and who cannot tolerate going without water,or for whom fasting is hard is exempted. a- In the latter case, one must pay 3/4kilogram of food to the poor for every day of defaulted fast.
b- If after Ramadhan , it becomes possible for both cases to fast, one should make up defaulted fasts.
4. A woman who is pregnant and whose delivery time is near, or a woman who is breast-feeding her child, if fasting will harm herself or her baby, she should not fast.
a- She must give 3/4 kilogram of food as expiation to the poor and, make up for the defaulted fasts.
b- In case the harm was for herself only and not for the child, then she should make up for the defaulted fasts without giving expiation.
5. Apostate (murtad) -A Muslim who turns away from Islam, should compensate for fasts defaulted during the period of apostacy.
6. Women in their monthly period or during childbirth should compensate for defaulted fasts.
7.A travellerwho missed certain days fast because of journey has to make up for missed fasts.
8. A sick person after recovery must fast the number of
( 34 )
days missed during Ramadhan.
a- A sick person provided the sickness continues for one full year until next Ramadhan is exempted. However, in such case one must pay 3/4 kilogram of wheat or any other staple food to the needy as expiation for the days missed. b- If one has not kept the fast for reasons other than sickness (example: being on a journey), and the same reason continues until next Ramadh an, that person must make up for the defaulted fasts, and it is also advisable to give 3/4 kilogram of food to the poor for every day of defaulted fast.
Defaulted fasts should be made up before the next Ramadhan. In case defaulted fasts are delayed after next Ramadhan, then one has time to fast afterwards whenever one can but that person should in addition distribute 3/4 kilogram of wheat or any staple food to the needy for each day of defaulted fasts as expiation.
If a person for whom Ramadhan fasting is compulsory, breaks the fast intentionally and willingly, must do an act of atonement in addition to making up the defaulted fast.
Sharia prescribes three methods of atonement, and any one method will atone for one day of defaulted fasting:
1- Freeing a slave.
2- Fasting for 60 days. The first 31 days of this fast must be consecutive. If, in the first 31 days, a reason arises for brcaking fast, such as the menstrual period, or a journey which can on no account be delayed, one need not start the 31 days of fasting over and again. Rather, that person can complete the remaining days when the cause is removed.
3- Feeding 60 poor Muslims (for one full meal). If one cannot afford to feed 60 poor Muslims, should then feed as many as possiblç. In case of not being able to feed anyone, then that person should sincerely plead Allah for forgiveness (say astaghflrullah) for the deed done. It is a
( 35 )
necessary precaution to perform any of the three methods of atonement whenever one is able to do. If one invalidates the fast with a forbidden act (haram) such as drinking wine, adultery etc., must observe all the three above-mentioned atonements and if unable to afford all, must observe the least taxing, and if that is also not possible must sincerely seek forgiveness from Allah.
1- A traveller who has to shorten prayers* for a journey must not fast. But this does not apply to a person whose duty is to travel and who observes normal prayers, such as a proPessional travller (e.g. sailor, pilot driver,roving salesman, etc.), who must fast.
2-A fasting person who begins a journey in, the afternoon, must continue the fast. If the journey was before noon, and on reaching a point where neither on&s hometown houses are visible nor the sotrnd of adhan is heard, the traveller must break the fast. But if the fast was broken before reaching that particular point, an atonement should be paid.
3- If a trayeller returns,to hometown. Qr reaches a place before noon, intending to siay ten days, and jias not done anything which would invalidate the fast, must fast that day. In case the traveller did something that would invalidate the fast, that day's fast is not obligatory. However, if a traveller arrives home or to a place afternoon, where a ten day stay is intended, that particular day's fast is not obligatory.
1. Eating or drinking anything in any quantity.